A variety of primary and secondary documents helped this project come to life. The majority of those documents and photographs came from the Archives of Baker University and the Kansas Area of the United Methodist Church in the Collin Library at Baker University, Baldwin City, Kansas.

Baker University Yearbooks:

The Baker Beacon 1893.

The Baker Orange Blossom 1894.

B.U. Hatchet 1895.

Curfew 1905.

Baker University Forty-Niner 1908.

Baker University Jubilee 1909.

Baker University Trailer 1910.

The Baker Orange Blossoms 1911 – 1916.

Baker University Wildcat 1921 – 1979.

Baker University Centurion 1958.


Alumni Record of Baker University, 1st ed. Baldwin City, KS: 1917

Baker University Board of Trustees. Board of Trustees Minutes, Spring 1979.

In Baker University Athletic Hall of Fame File:

Hall of Fame inductee profiles, 1977 – 2003.

In Baker University Track and Field File:

“8th Annual Baker Relay Carnival: Official Program, 1931.”

“Baker University Relay Carnival Program, 1924.”

“Baker University Relay Carnival Program, 1996

Baker University Alumni Office, 1978-79. “Extra Mile: Baker Track and Field Special Announcement.”

Baker University Public Relations Office. “Track to be Reintroduced – January 24, 1979.”

“Undated untitled page regarding Basketball, Football, and Kansas Conference Track and Field Meet.”

Walker, President J.C. “Memo to: The Coordinating Committee – January 2, 1979.”

Walker, President J.C. “Statement on Track and Women’s Basketball – December 8, 1975.”

Washington State University Sports Information Office. “Karl. A. Schlademan Dies – January 8, 1981.”

In E.J Cragoe Papers (note his papers were unorganized/processed when I used them):

Baker University Faculty Representative to the KCAC Files (these include expense and eligibility reports).

KCAC Secretary Files.

Various KCAC track and field meet sheets.

Various Baker University Relay Carnival Programs.

In Dan Harris Papers:

“Undated untitled page regarding Kansas Conference Track and Field team finishes 1904 to 1938.”

“Unpublished, History of the Heart of America Athletic Conference.”

In Rob Mallinder Papers:

“All-Americans and Vague Former Coaches List.”

“Track and Field Performance List and Conference Records.”


In Baker University Track and Field Pictures File:
 “1907 team picture.”

“1941 team picture.”

“Palmer Mai on podium, 1953.”

“Undated untitled female discuss thrower.”

“Undated untitled grass throwing ring picture.”

“Undated untitled high jump picture A.”

“Undated untitled high jump picture B.”

“Undated untitled hurdles picture A.”

“Undated untitled hurdles picture B.”

“Undated untitled long jump picture.”

“Undated untitled pole vault picture.”

“Undated untitled shot put picture.”

“Undated untitled starting line picture.”

“Undated untitled team picture A, circa 1958-1963.”

“Undated untitled team picture B.”

“Untitled 1993 track dedication picture.”

“Warren E. Metzger Track, October 13, 1980.”

In Liston Stadium Pictures File:

“Undated untitled aerial view”

“Early plans for the stadium”

“Undated untitled students working, façade.”

“Undated untitled students working, memorial fence.”

“Undated untitled students working, wheel barrow.”


Askew, Eugenia. “Title IX and the disbanding of Baker University Track and Field in 1975.” Interview. Interviewed by Andrew McGregor. March 2, 2007.

Bailey, W. “Track and Field Experiences at Baker University.” Email interview. Interviewed by Andrew McGregor. March 25, 2007.

Holland, R. “Track and Field Experiences at Baker University. Email interview. Interviewed by Andrew McGregor. March 14, 2007.

Harris, Athletic Director D. “New Facilities.” Interview. Interviewed by Andrew McGregor. March 9, 2007.

Mai, P. “Track and Field Experiences at Baker University.” Telephone interview. Interviewed by Andrew McGregor. March 7, 2007.

Mallinder, Head Coach R. “Baker University Track and Field Program Success and future.” Interview. Interviewed by Andrew McGregor. February 4, 2007.


“Baker Beats Ottawa.” Lawrence Journal-World. May 7, 1936.

“Baker Coach to Leave April 1.” Hutchison Kansas News. February 8, 1940.

“Baker hopes High.” Lawrence Daily Journal-World. March 10, 1936, pg. 6.

“Baker Hosts 49 Schools.” Ottawa Herald. April 23, 1965. p. 4.

“Baker Plans to Resume All Sports Next Year.” Lawrence Journal-World. October 19, 1945. p. 10.

“Baker Relays Attract 650.” Ottawa Herald. April 27, 1956. p. 10.

“Baker Relays Set.” Lawrence Journal-World. April 23, 1971. p. 21.

“Baker tabs track coach.” Lawrence Journal-World. July 2, 1987.

“Baker tabs Kynion as new track coach.” Lawrence Journal-World. June 25, 1980.

“Baker track programs.” Lawrence Journal-World. February 11, 1986.

“Baker University Rune Track Meet Like Real Rodeo.” The Hobbs (New Mexico) Daily News-Sun. May 27, 1941. p. 8.

“Bretnall into Hall of Fame.” Ames Daily Tribune. September 30, 1971.

“Bronson Tie at Baker.” Iola Register. April 29, 1964. p. 6.

“Clarance Clarridge Obiturary.” Lawrence Journal-World. June 13, 1980.

“Ed Gallagher Goes.” Black and Orange (Oklahoma A&M). Septebmer 10, 1913. p 1, 4.

“Expect 600 Athletes.” Lawrence Journal-World. April 5, 1940. p. 8.

“Faces task at Baker.” Lawrence Journal-World. March 27, 1934.

“Hawks Defend Baker Title.” The Hutchinson Kansas News. April 27, 1956. p. 3

“Haskell Wins Baker Relays.” Lawrence Journal-World. May 1, 1961. p. 13.

“Hutchinson Junior College Second in Relay Carnival.” The Hutchinson Kansas News. May 2, 1932. p. 3.

“Jones will coach Baker track team.” Lawrence Journal-World.  March 3, 1979.

Kass, B. “Baker Edges Into Women’s Basketball” The Baker Orange, December 12, 1975.

“McDonald Will Enter Athletes in Kansas and Baker Relays.” Lawrence Journal-World. April 4, 1925. p. 2.

“No Junior College Section.” Lawrence Journal-World. April 16, 1943. p. 8.

Pressgrove, D. “Baker Coach Building Track Tradition.” Baldwin City Signal, June 14, 2000. accessed March 21, 2007.

“Revise Baker Relays.” Iola Register. March 12, 1964. p. 8.

Shore, S. “Athletics Committee.” The Baker Orange, April 16, 1974.

“Track Practice at Baker.” Lawrence Journal-World. January 22, 1912. p. 8.


“About the NAIA.” National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics. accessed March 27, 2007.

Fort Hays State Athletic Department. “Track and Field Coaches.” accessed March 21, 2007.

“History of Braves Athletics.” Ottawa University. accessed February 5, 2007.

“History of the KCAC.” Official Site of the Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference. accessed February 5, 2007.

“History of the NAIA.” National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics. accessed March 2, 2007.

University of Kansas Athletics Department. “Facilities: Memorial Stadium.” accessed March 13, 2007.

University of Kansas Athletics Department. “KU History.” 2005 Track and Field Media Guide. accessed February 5, 2007.

University of Missouri Athletics Department. “Matt Candrl Profile.” accessed March 21 2007

“Year-by-Year Champions,” Heart of America Athletic Conference. accessed March 2, 2013.

Journals Articles:

Larson, L. K. “The First-Ever High School State Track and Field Championship Meet.” North American Society For Sport History Newsletter, 1985, p. 18-19.

Leslie, B. “The Response of Four Colleges to the Rise of Intercollegiate Athletics, 1865-1915.”
Journal of Sport History 3, no. 3 (1976) p. 213-222.

Lewis, G. “The Beginning of Organized Collegiate Sport.” American Quarterly 22, no. 2, Part 1 (Summer, 1970): 222-229.

Munasinghe, L. Brendan O’Flaherty, and Stephan Danninger. “Globalization and the Rate of Technological Progress: What Track and Field Records show.” The Journal of Political Economy 109, no. 5 (Oct., 2001): 1132-1149.

Sears, H. D. “The Moral Threat of Intercollegiate Sports: An 1893 Poll of Ten College Presidents, and the End of ‘The Champion Football Team of the Great West.’” Journal of Sport History 19, no 3 (1992):211-226.

Thelin, J. R. “Good Sports? Historical Perspective on the Political Economy of Intercollegiate Athletics in the Era of Title IX, 1972-1997.” The Journal of Higher Education 71, no. 4 (Jul. – Aug., 2000): 391-410.

Books, etc:

Ebright, Homer K. The History of Baker University. Baldwin City, KS, 1951.

McNeil Jr., H. A. The Blue Book of College Athletics, 1937 – 1938. Cleveland, OH: McNitts, 1937.

University of Missouri Athletics Department. “Missouri Track and Field: 1901-2006.”2006 Missouri Track and Field Media Guide. Marceline, MO: Walsworth, 2006.